White Papers

Opticus White Papers Abstract


Understanding and Testing Gigabit Ethernet Networks

White Paper Abstract

With the advent of gigabit data rates in the already popular Ethernet protocol, this technology is sure to experience phenomenal growth. This increase in data rate enables new, exciting applications for this mature, well-established technology. These applications now demand proper testing and characterization to ensure that the vast amounts of data transported reach their destination successfully and reliably.

Testing in an Ethernet network can be divided into two main categories, those tests which are performed during installation and commissioning and those performed during maintenance and troubleshooting. The major differentiator between these applications is whether the test is active or passive.

For installation and commissioning situations, active tests are employed to test such things as continuity and configuration, throughput, frame loss, back-to-back frames (commonly called burstability) and latency. For these tests, traffic is generated, up to full line rate, to characterize the capability of the network. Once the network's capability is well documented, Service Level Agreements (SLAs) may be established with confidence.

For maintenance and troubleshooting applications, it is generally undesirable to insert additional test traffic into the network. If a customer is already complaining of a slow network, blasting full line rate traffic into the network will only exacerbate the problem. Instead, in these situations it is best to monitor the network and observe the nature of the traffic on the network to gain important insight into the cause of the original problem.

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A New Breed of Multi-Layer Test and Measurement Equipment for Accelerating Network Deployment and Reducing Cost

White Paper Abstract

In the highly competitive telecommunications industry, the ability to quickly deploy new services, promptly respond to changing customer requirements and reduce operational expenses is key to success. As a result of these requirements and increasingly complicated network architectures, a desire for test and measurement equipment that mirrors the network evolution has developed. This paper will highlight some of the major network changes, their effects on commissioning/ maintenance, and the creation of a new breed of test and measurement solutions that address multiple layers of communication networks.

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Bridging the Gap in Optical Network Testing

White Paper Abstract

To meet the ever growing demand for more bandwidth and services, Metro Optical Networks (MONs) are being upgraded for seamless connection between the end-user and the ultra high-bandwidth optical backbone. To make this transition, the MON's performance requires a combination of increased data rates, Optical-Add Drop Multiplexers (OADM), and Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM). Each of these techniques present unique challenges to installers to effectively test this evolving network and its new characteristics. This paper provides an overview of proper testing techniques and equipment needed to effectively install, commission and maintain these evolving networks.

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Challenges in DWDM System Spectral Analysis

White Paper Abstract

Wide-scale field deployment of DWDM systems with high count, closely spaced channels has led to the development of a new generation of optical spectrum analyzers. These new analyzers can be deployed either as portable test systems, embedded systems to be incorporated in the DWDM transmission systems or as bench-top instrumentation for DWDM system characterization. The advances in this field, current applications, and differentiation between platforms will be discussed.

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Understanding Error Checking Using Parity Bytes in SDH/SONET Networks

White Paper Abstract

Compared to PDH/T-Carrier systems, SDH/SONET systems provide advanced network management features. One of the most important is that any bit errors can be assigned to a articular portion of the network, meaning that it is easier to isolate the source of the error. This feature is made possible thanks to a special technique known as "Bit Interleaved Parity" (BIP). The results of the BIP check for each link section of the network are inserted into parity bytes known as: B1, B2, B3, V5.

The BIP calculation method introduces some limitations. The limitations regarding the maximum error rates for B1, B2, B3, V5 bytes in SDH/SONET transmission system can be confusing. The purpose of this application note is to provide some explanations about the BIP calculation method and the ensuing limitations.

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Qualifying SDH/SONET Transmission Path

White Paper Abstract

Installing, bringing into service or maintaining today's SDH/SONET networks requires specific tools.
All those who validate or operate SDH/SONET networks are faced with a number of tests. The purpose of this application note is to give an overview of each of these different tests and explain why they are important. In the last part of the document, we will see how you can benefit from CMA 5000 OTA capabilities for performing fast and accurate "path analysis".

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Measuring APS Disruption Time

White Paper Abstract

SONET and SDH networks are monitored by special mechanisms involving Bit Interleaved Parity (BIP) controls. These mechanisms are designed to sectionnalize and identify the nature of the problems but they do not solve them. That is why another protection mechanism has been defined in order to guarantee the availability of the network in case of problems. Its name is APS=Automatic Protection Switching.

There are two aspects in APS:
• Protocol aspect (information exchange between network equipments)
• Switch time reaction (time it takes for the network to complete the protection switch)
This application note is focused on the second aspect : how to measure the APS disruption time. The first part of this document describes the different APS architectures. The last part describes how you can benefit from the CMA 5000 OTA Application capabilities for performing easy and accurate APS switch time measurement.

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Environmental Effects on CD and PMD

White Paper Abstract

Tight requirements of high speed optical networks require an understanding of all the effects that result in the degradation of the optical signal. This includes taking into account the environmental conditions that affect chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion. This paper explains how environmental effects, such as variations in temperature, and pressure play a role in determining the refractive index of the optical fiber and quality of the signal.

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Measuring and Compensating for PMD


White Paper Abstract

Polarization Mode Dispersion is a physical phenomenon in optical fiber that causes light pulses to spread in time. If the amount of spread (dispersion) is excessive, adjacent light pulses will overlap and interfere with each other. This interference will manifest itself as an increased Bit Error Rate as the receiver may be unable to discern adjacent bits from each other. As the bit spacing decreases, as in high data-rate transmissions such as 10 Gbps (OC-192, STM-64) or 40 Gbps (OC-768, STM-256), excessive PMD will severely impact network operation. This paper will explain how these negative effects can be minimized or eliminated through proper PMD measurement and compensation.

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The City Of Light aka France and The Digital Divide


White Paper Abstract

Marc Duchesne reviews the push for Passive Optical Netwoks in France. It seems that the Fiber-To-The-Home dream is turning real, right in the country where it all began twenty five years ago. President Jacques Chirac aims to make France "one of the most advanced nations in digital technology" and Paris Mayor Bertrand Delanoe has declared that FTTH will be deployed accross the city with plans for a municipal citywide fiber network that will be put out to tender at some point in the coming months.

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Putting MPEG over Ethernet to the test


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Tower Mounted Amplifiers, Diagnostics and Isolation Measurements


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Using Loss and Return loss and height of OTDR peaks to identify faulty components that are close together.


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Which type of Fusion Splicer should I choose - Core Alignment or fixed V-Groove?


White Paper Abstract

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